C-type filter design

We work hard to serve our clients and to achieve good value engineering outcomes. Here is a short note describing some aspects of design and application of C-type harmonic filters, now commonly applied at medium and high voltage for renewable energy projects and in transmission systems.

You’ll find more application guides, product information, and case studies in our downloads page.

Specialists in high voltage harmonic mitigation

Ensuring adherence to strict power quality standards at the connection point to a wind farm consisting of more than 120 wind turbine generators, three 132 kV collector substations and transmission lines, and over 100 km of 33 kV cables, and delivering the necessary practical implementation requires the type of experience and specialist skills that NE are known for.

ONE performed detailed harmonic assessments, conceptual filter designs, rating calculations, specified, and then delivered and assisted with site installation and commissioning of two 132 kV 50 Mvar C-type harmonic filters at a large wind farm in Victoria. These filters are, at the date of publication, the largest and highest voltage C-type filters installed in Australia. 

Harmonic compliance assessment and mitigation design in renewable energy networks

We were pleased to contribute a paper to CIDER 17, Cigre’s “Conference on the Integration of Distributed Energy Resources”  for the Asia Pacific region held in Sydney, 15 and 16 August 2017. The analysis approach for harmonic emission compliance studies in distributed generation systems is shaped by a regulatory framework that requires a priori resolution of several performance requirements. This approach is steeped in risk avoidance and, like most risk avoidance, results in conservative outcomes that are not necessarily in the best interest of the market. Our article describes this analysis approach and demonstrates how the regulation and associated analysis result in increased rather than decreased risk to the stakeholders. A suggestion is made for a pragmatic approach that will result in better outcomes for network owners as well as generation proponents. The recommended approach provides for an initial risk assessment followed by field measurements that quantify the extent of compliance and assist in the design of mitigation systems.

Uninterrupted power quality

The Merus Uninterrupted Power Quality (UPQ) is an innovative concept, combining the functionalities of an active harmonic filter and a UPS into a single robust solution. UPQ protects mission critical processes from supply interruptions and voltage sags while maintaining supply voltage quality by compensating harmonic currents and the reactive power fluctuations of non-linear loads.

Merus UPQ has two operation modes. In secured supply conditions, it operates in power quality modes, performing active filtering of harmonic distortions as well as load balancing and flicker mitigation. When it detects a voltage sag or power outage in the supply network, it shifts to power protection mode to protect against critical loads. Merus UPQ is available from low up to medium voltage levels.

Statcom enables flexible grid connection for mine

We offer unmatched project time frames for statcom solutions. Optimised Network Equipment has proven performance in detailed system studies including harmonic impact studies, power quality analysis and fast transient network studies, and now we combine our skills with market leading solutions from Merus Power and our track record of delivering complete projects to all our customers in Australia and New Zealand. Solutions that are flexible enough to provide ultra-fast voltage support, balance network voltages, and act as a harmonic filter – all at the same time.

Read more in this application note about how we can improve overall power quality for our clients and the surrounding network.

Damped filter in a railway application

Mass rail transport systems in modern urban centres require reliable, safe, and high quality electrical energy. Urban rail systems include power supplies to rolling stock and to stations. Rolling stock is commonly supplied with direct current from rectifiers that generate significant harmonic distortion, and this distortion is distributed throughout the network. High voltage distortion can result in communication failures and malfunctioning electrical and electronic equipment, with consequent danger or inconvenience to passengers and rail personnel. High voltage distortion contribute to network losses and can also result in non-compliance with network supply arrangements and reduce equipment life.

This note describes an approach that ensures voltage distortion on sensitive loads is limited to within acceptable levels.

Specifying capacitor discharge time

When capacitors are disconnected from the supply, a DC voltage persists across the terminals of the capacitor unit. Safe handling of capacitor units after de-energisation requires that the stored electric charge in the capacitor unit should be removed to avoid the risk of electric shock to personnel. Any stored charge should be removed gradually — shorting the terminals of a capacitor unit to remove the charge will result in very rapid discharge of a substantial amount of energy that can endanger personnel and result in damage to the capacitor units themselves.

Capacitor units are therefore supplied with a discharge device capable of reducing the voltage between the terminals practically to zero, within a given time, after the capacitor has been disconnected from a network. The question of what this discharge time should be is of interest in this article.

The decision of a shorter discharge time for a capacitor bank may seem safe and harmless. In fact such a decision results in possible long term damage to the the capacitor units, and will always have a significantly higher carbon footprint than the default IEC60871 discharge time.

Calculating component ratings in detuned capacitor banks

Shunt capacitor banks are expected to operate for many years in harsh electrical and environmental conditions. Conservative designs are therefore preferred from a technical perspective. On the other hand, commercial preference is for least cost designs.

This note reviews the requirements for capacitor voltage rating and reactor current rating in two common situations. The purpose is to determine component ratings according to the requirements of standards such as IEC 60871 that will result in reliable performance under foreseeable operating conditions.

We are experts in reactive power compensation design, manufacture, delivery and operation. Feel free to contact us for more information or assistance.


Choosing reactors for shunt capacitor banks

Shunt capacitor banks are installed for a variety of reasons in industrial, distribution and transmission systems. A common thread to all installations is the question of what, if any series reactor should be installed with the capacitor bank.

Series reactors are used with capacitor banks to limit the effect of transients during capacitor switching, and to control the natural frequency of the capacitor bank and system impedance to avoid resonance or to sink harmonic current.

Choosing between damping, detuning or tuning reactors in any capacitor application requires an understanding of the consequences of such a decision. This application note describes these consequences in the context of a practical example.

Visit our downloads area for much more information.

Reducing voltage sags during motor starting

Induction and synchronous motors draw starting current that is considerably more than nominal current. This can cause voltage sags that exceed permissible levels as determined by supply agreements, cause problems for equipment in the remainder of the plant, and in worst cases cause the motor to stall. Optimised Network Equipment can provide a solution based on rugged thyristor switched capacitor banks that has lower cost compared to other remedies such as variable speed drives, provides near full torque during starting and is very simple to install indoors or outdoors in a switchyard.

This example delivered by GE Grid Solutions to the Colonial Pipeline Company describes the typical problem, alternative remedies and a comparison of advantages and disadvantages for each. Refer to our downloads section for product information.

We can provide support in terms of dynamic system models that will identify potential starting voltage sages, quantify the problem and the details of the required solution. Please contact us for more information.